The Gemara says (Rosh Hashanah 16b) that on Yom Ha’din the tzadikim gemurim are “nichtavin vi’nechtamin li’alter li’chayim” and that the resha’im gemurim are “nichtavin vi’nechtamin li’alter li’misah.” But don’t we see many tzadikim who die and many resha’im who live?
Let me explain something to you. The phrase “resha’im gemurim“ in this ma’amar means the resha’im who are going to be sentenced. The word “rasha“ here, means “rasha la’mus,” the one who is being sentenced to the punishment. If a rasha is going to live out the coming year because Hashem needs him in this world for His plans, then he is called a “tzadik“ in this ma’amar. Do you understand that? “Tzadik“ means that he was tzoidek ba’din. That’s all that it means. So Hitler was sentenced to live for a certain amount of years. He passed through more than a few Rosh Hashanahs. So for those years he was called a “tzadik gomur.” It doesn’t mean he was a righteous man. It just means that he was tzoidek ba’din. That’s the meaning. And the Jews, the tzadikim, who were killed by Hitler were tzadikim gemurim. Of course they were. But they were “resha’im“ in the din of Rosh Hashanah. They were “nirsha“. “Nirsha“ means that they were sentenced ba’din. That’s all that it means. That’s all. So, Hashem sentences people on Rosh Hashanah. Those who are going to live – that’s called tzoidek ba’din. And the others are condemned ba’din. That’s what it really means.